Analisis Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif Tanin Ekstrak Kulit Buah Delima Putih (Punica Granatum L.) Menggunakan Metode Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi (KCKT)

Rahmat A Hi Wahid

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Kulit buah delima putih (Punica granatum L.) diketahui mengandung tanin. Tanin merupakan senyawa polifenol yang dapat larut dalam air dan pelarut organik juga dapat mengendapkan protein. Tanin terdapat luas dalam tumbuhan dan digunakan untuk sarana proteksi serangan hewan, bakteri, jamur, serta dapat digunakan sebagai hepatoprotektor. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui cara analisis tanin yang sesuai sehingga diperoleh kadar tanin dalam ekstrak kulit buah delima putih menggunakan metode Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi (KCKT).Kulit buah delima putih diekstraksi dengan pelarut etanol 70% dengan metode maserasi selama 5 hari. Pengujian kualitatif tanin dilakukan dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu dan KCKT. Sedangkan pengujian kuantitatif tanin dengan KCKT menggunakan fase diam kolom C18 Octadesyl Silane (ODS) 25 cm x 4,6 mm, fase gerak asam fosfat 0,55% (v/v), kecepatan alir 1,5 mL/menit, elusi isokratik, dan menggunakan detektor spektrofotometer UV (λ 277 nm). Hasil analisis menunjukkan waktu retensi 25,0 menit. Linearitas diperoleh dengan memplotkan luas puncak kromatogram dan konsentrasi isolat menunjukkan korelasi yang baik (r =0,999) dengan persamaan regresi linear y = 645,6x. Kadar rata-rata tanin ekstrak etanol kulit buah delima putih yang ditetapkan dengan KCKT sebesar 2,01%. Dari hasil penelitian ini  dapat disimpulkan bahwa analisis kualitatif tanin dapat dilakukan dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu dan KCKT sedangkan analisis kuantitatif dapat dilakukan dengan KCKT.

Kata kunci : Folin-Ciocalteu, KCKT, Kulit Buah Delima Putih (Punica granatum L.), Tanin.

The peel of white pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to contain tannins. These chemical are polyphenols that can be disolved in water in addition to organic solvent and protein. The aim of this study is to quantify and optimize the composition of tannin extracted from pomegranate peel extract by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

The peel of white pomegranate is extracted by maceration method using 70% of ethanol liquid. HPLC and Folin-Ciocalteu was used as qualitative analyze of tannins, and quantitative analyze by HPLC with Octadesyl Silane (ODS) 25 cm x 4,6 mm as stationary phase C18 column, phosphoric acid 0,55% (v/v) as mobile phase, the flow rate 1,5 mL/minute, isocratic elution and with spectrofotometer UV detector (λ 277 nm). Result showed that a retention time of 25.0 minute.

Linearity obtained by plotting the peak area of chromatogram and the concentrate of isolate showed that good correlation (r=0,999) with the equality of linear regretion y = 645,6x. The average content of extract tannins ethanol the peel of white Pomegranate that determinated with HPLC is 2,01%. As a conclusion, the qualitative analyze of tannins can be used by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC methods, and quantitative analyze can be used by HPLC.

Keywords: Folin-Ciocalteu, HPLC, Tannins, Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.35473/ijpnp.v3i2.538

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